Dr. Goodwin's practice focuses on taking care of patients with spinal tumors, including both metastatic and primary cancers of the spine, benign-aggressive lesions of the spine, other noncancerous lesions of the spine that may require significant surgical interventions (spinal infections, radiation-induced fractures, etc)., as well as the more common degenerative or traumatic conditions of the spine.
Dr. Goodwin has completed specialized surgical training in both neurosurgery and orthopedics, which has provided him with a unique background to treat patients with complex spinal conditions. Dr. Goodwin is dedicated to providing his patients with the highest level of care.
Common Diagnoses Treated
- Primary tumors of the spine and sacrum (benign and malignant):
- Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC)
- Ewing’s sarcoma
- Giant cell tumors (GCT)
- Osteiod osteoma
- Synovial sarcoma
- Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS)
- Metastatic disease of the spine, including:
- Breast cancer
- Lung cancer
- Multiple Myeloma
- Prostate cancer
- Renal cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Tumor-like conditions of the spine:
- Arteriovenous (AV) malformations
- Destructive spinal infections (e.g. TB, coccidiodomycosis)
- Spinal infections (e.g. osteomyelitis)
- Degenerative conditions of the spine:
- Adjacent segment disease
- Atlanto-axial (C1-C2) pathology
- Atlanto-occipital dissociation
- Atlanto-occipital pathology
- Degenerative scoliosis
- Disc herniation of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine
- Facet fractures/subluxations/dislocations
- Failed fusion/pseudoarthrosis
- Flat back deformity
- Fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine
- Neurogenic claudication
- Odontoid fractures
- Revision surgery
- Sagittal imbalance
- Spinal stenosis
- Spinal trauma
- Synovial cysts
- Common tumor procedures:
- En bloc spondylectomy for primary tumors
- Corpectomy of cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine
- Open vertebroplasty with or without instrumentation
- Resection and reconstruction of tumors of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine
- Resection and reconstruction of tumors of the sacrum/pelvis
- Other common procedures:
- Anterior and posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion
- Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)
- Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)
- Lateral retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine
- Pedicle substraction osteotomy (PSO)
- Posterior atlanto-axial fusion (C1-2)
- Posterior cervical decompression and instrumented fusion
- Posterior cervical laminectomy
- Posterior cervical and lumbar foraminotomies
- Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)
- Posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion
- Posterior lumbar discectomies
- Posterior lumbar laminectomy and laminoplasty
- Posterior occipital-cervical (OC) fusion
- Posterior thoracic laminectomy and laminoplasty
- Posterior thoracic laminectomy and instrumented fusion
- Posterior thoracic costotransversectomy
- Posterior thoracic lateral extracavitary approach
- Posterior thoracolumbar osteotomies
- Spinal osteotomies
- Thoracic thoracotomy for anterior approach to spine
- Thoracic disc herniation discectomy
- Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)
- Vertebral column resection (VCR)
Clinical Office Locations
- Barnes-Jewish Hospital
- Barnes-Jewish West County Hospital
Academic Office Mailing Address
We welcome you to Washington University Orthopedics, where our spine team is known nationally and internationally for providing patients with premier spine care. Washington University Orthopedics has a long history of leading the way in surgical spinal care for patients, and I am humbled and honored to be a part of this team. I look forward to taking the absolute best possible care of you.
On our website, you will find a tremendous amount of material that will help you prepare for any possible upcoming spinal surgery. I often remind patients that all of us are patients or family members of patients at one time or another; I am no different! (JAMA 2017;318(20):1977-1978) Critical to our shared success is that we consider you as a vital member of the team as we make decisions. Finally, in order to provide you with optimal care, we will often ask for a few things even before your appointment:
- You will have radiographs (“X-rays”) taken of your spine before seeing me, even if you have already had an MRI and/or CT scan. Standing, upright plain radiographs provide a lot more information than most people realize. With an X-ray (unlike with a CT or MRI), we can see soft tissue, bones, alignment, hardware, etc., all at one time. Furthermore, the X-ray, helps us learn a lot about your alignment, bone structure, and where there is abnormal movement that may not be apparent on your MRI or CT scan. I have spoken internationally and published on radiation safety and would not advocate for this unless it was warranted.
- If you had tests or images done from another physician or hospital, please bring the actual images (not just the interpretation) on a disc with you to your appointment. While many patients try to have one hospital send another hospital images, current privacy laws still make hand delivery by the patient the most reliable way of making sure we get what we need.
Our spine team places a great amount of importance on conservative spine care, exhausting all nonoperative approaches to treatment before moving to surgery. In the case that a patient's condition has not responded to nonoperative treatment or conservative treatment is not warranted, it is truly our privilege to take care of you, and we'll work hard to provide you with the highest level of care. Welcome to the team!
Featured Articles and Media
- Goodwin ML. Salt of the Earth. JAMA 2017;318(20):1977-78. PMID: 29183081
Goodwin ML and Sciubba DM. Tumors of the Spine and Spinal Cord. Accepted. Ann Transl Med 2019; 7(10):209.
Goodwin ML*, Pennington Z*, Westbroek E, Cottrill E, Ahmed AK, Sciubba DM. Lactate and cancer: a “lactatic” perspective on spinal tumor metabolism (Part 1). Accepted. Annals of Translational Medicine 2019. *Co-first authors **Comment on this article in same issue (Gladden LB. Lactate as a key metabolic intermediate in cancer. Ann Transl Med 2019;7(10):210).
Pennington Z*, Goodwin ML*, Westbroek E, Cottrill E, Ahmed AK, Sciubba DM. Lactate and cancer: spinal metastases and potential therapeutic targets (Part 2). Ann Transl Med 2019;7(10):221. *Co-first authors **Comment on this article in same issue (Gladden LB. Lactate as a key metabolic intermediate in cancer. Ann Transl Med 2019;7(10):210).
Goodwin ML, Jin H, Straessler K, Smith-Fry K, Zhu J, Monument M, Grossman A, Randall RL, Capecchi MR, Jones KB. Modeling alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis in the mouse: a role for lactate in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Cell 2014(26):1-12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2014.10.003 PMID: 25453902 *Work led to winning connective tissue oncology society (CTOS) young investigator of the year award.
- Ehresman J, Pennington Z, Lubelski D, Westbroek EM, Ahmed KA, Goodwin ML, Lo S, Witham TF, Bydon A, Nicholas Theodore N, Sciubba DM. Preoperative nutrition consults associated with decreased postoperative complication rate and decreased length of hospital stay after spine metastasis surgery. Accepted. World Neurosurgery 2019.
- Pennington Z, Lubelski D, Westbroek EM, Ahmed KA, Ehresman J, Goodwin ML, Lo S, Witham TF, Bydon A, Nicholas Theodore N, Sciubba DM. Severity of Post-Operative C5 Palsy Predicts Time to Recovery. Accepted. JNS Spine 2019.
- Pennington Z, Ahmed KA, Westbroek EM, Cottrill E, Lubelski D, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. SINS Score and Stability - Evaluating the Need for Stabilization Within the Uncertain Category. Accepted. World Neurosurgery.
- Pennington Z, Ahmed KA, Westbroek EM, Cottrill E, Lubelski D, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. The effect of electrical stimulation therapies on spinal fusion: a cross-disciplinary systematic review and meta-analysis of the preclinical and clinical data. Accepted. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.
- Pennington Z, Westbroek EM, Ahmed AK, Cottrill E, Lubelski D, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. Surgical Management of Giant Presacral Schwannoma: Systematic Review of Published Cases and Meta-Analysis. Accepted. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.
- Goodwin ML, Gundavda MK, Reddy R, Deogaonkar K, Lala M, Baliarsing A, Sciubba DM, Jones KB, Agarwal M. Extracorporeal radiation and reimplantation: a safe and viable option for reconstruction after sacral tumor resection? Accepted. Ann of Transl Med, 2019.
- Pennington Z, Reinshagen C, Ahmed AK, Barber S, Goodwin ML, Gokaslan Z, Sciubba DM. Management of presacral schwannomas – A 10-year Multi-Institutional Series and Review of the Literature. Accepted. Ann of Transl Med, 2019.
- Pennington Z, Ahmed AK, Cottrill E, Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. Systematic Review on the Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Operative Management and Follow-Up for Primary Sarcoma – Lessons from Extremity Sarcomas. Accepted. Ann of Transl Med, 2019.
- Pennington Z, Ahmed AK Cottrill EC, Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of the SINS System for Instability in Spine Metastases – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Accepted. Ann of Transl Med, 2019.
- Howell EP, Williamson T, Karikari I, Abd-el-Barr M, Erickson M, Goodwin ML, Reynolds J, Sciubba DM, Goodwin CR. Total en bloc resection of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Accepted. Ann of Transl Med, 2019.
- Pennington Z, Cottrill E, Ahmed AK, Passias P, Protopsaltis T, Neuman B, Kebaish K, Ehresman J, Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Sciubba DM. Smaller paraspinal muscles independently increases the risk for proximal junctional kyphosis in patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion. Accepted. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.
- Westbroek EM Ahmed KA Pennington Z, Goodwin ML, Xia Y, Boone C, Gailloud P, Sciubba DM. Atypical vertebral hemangiomas are frequently associated with radiculomedullary arteries. Accepted. World Neurosurgery 2019.
- Molina CA, Pennington Z, Ahmed AK, Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Huang J, Tamargo R, Sciubba DM. Use of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography for feeder vessel ligation and en bloc resection of intramedullary hemangioblastoma. Accepted. Operative Neurosurgery 2019.
- Pennington Z, Cottrill E, Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Lubelski D, Ahmed AK, Sciubba DM. Evaluation of surgeon and patient radiation exposure by imaging technology in patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion: systematic review of the literature. Accepted. The Spine Journal 2019.
- Pennington Z, Lubelski D, D'Sa A, Westbroek E, Ahmed AK, Goodwin ML, Witham TF, Bydon A, Theodore N, Sciubba DM. Preoperative clinical and radiographic variables predict postoperative C5 palsy. World Neurosurgery 2019; Mar 27. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.211. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30928589
- Westbroek EM, Goodwin ML, Hui F, Khan MA, Sciubba DM. Thermal Injury to Spinal Cord, A Rare Complication of Percutaneous Microwave Spine Tumor Ablation: Case Report. J Clin Neurosci 2019; March 25. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.03.018. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30922532
- Westbroek EM, Ahmed AK, Pennington Z, Goodwin ML, Xia Y, Boone C, Philippe Gailloud P, Sciubba DM. Hypervascular metastatic spine tumor angiographic relationships with the artery of Adamkiewicz and other radiculomedullary arteries. World Neurosurgery 2019; Feb 27. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.075. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30825630
- Goodwin ML, Rane AA, Rothberg DL. Antibiotic prophylaxis for removal of lower leg orthopedic implants. JAMA 2018;319(18):1936. PMID: 29801006
- Goodwin ML, Spiker WR, Brodke DS, and Lawrence BD. Failure of facet replacement system with metal-on-metal bearing surface and subsequent discovery of cobalt allergy: two case reports. J Neurosurg Spine 2018; Apr 13:1-4. doi10.3171/2017.10.SPINE17862. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29652237
- Ferguson BS, Rogatzki MJ, Rightmire Z, Goodwin ML, and Gladden LB. Lactate metabolism: historical context, prior misinterpretations and current understanding. Eur J Appl Physiol 2018;118(4): 691-728. doi: 10.1007/s00421-017-3795-6. [Epub ahead of print]
- Goodwin ML, Jacobson LG, Holt PA, Rothberg DL, and Jones KB. Knot tying 101: hip to be square. Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal (OKOJ). doi: 10.5435/OKOJ-13-9-2. OKOJ 13(9); 2015.
- Goodwin ML, Gladden LB, Nijsten MWN, Kevin B Jones. Lactate and Cancer: Revisiting the Warburg Effect in an Era of Lactate Shuttling. Invited Review for Special Topics: Glycolysis at 75: Is it time to tweak the first elucidated metabolic pathway in history? Frontiers in Nutrition: Neuroenergetics, nutrition, and brain health. Front Neurosci 2015;1(27): 1-3. PMID: 25988127
- Rogatzki MJ, Ferguson BS, Goodwin ML, LB Gladden. Lactate is always the end product of glycolysis. Invited Review for Special Topics: Glycolysis at 75: Is it time to tweak the first elucidated metabolic pathway in history? Frontiers in Nutrition: Neuroenergetics, nutrition, and brain health. Front Neurosci 2015;9(22):1-7. PMID: 25774123
- Goodwin ML and Rothberg DL. Lactate metabolism in trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014;Jul:77(1):182-3. PMID: 24977778
- Oldenbeuving G, McDonald JR, Goodwin ML, Sayilir R, Reijngoud D, Gladden LB, Nijsten MW. A patient with acute liver failure and extreme hypoglycemia with lactic acidosis who was not in a coma. Causes and consequences of lactate-protected hypoglycemia. Anaesth Intensive Care 2014;42(4):507-511. PMID: 24967767
- Kotbi N, Goodwin ML, Agarkar S, Francois D. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: Treatment Challenges. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2014;26(3):E31-33. PMID: 25093779
- Spires J, Gladden LB, Grassi B, Goodwin ML, Saidel GM, Lai N. Distinguishing the effects of convective and diffusive O2 delivery on VO2 on-kinetics in skeletal muscle contracting at moderate
intensity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2013;305(5):R512-21. PMID: 23761640
- Goodwin ML. Control, control, control; where’s your control? Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2012;215(3):445-6 PMID: 22901520
- Battaglini CL, Hackney AC, Goodwin ML. Cancer cachexia: Muscle physiology and exercise training. Cancers 2012;4(4):1247-51. PMID: 24310358
- Goodwin ML, Hernández A, Cabrera ME, Lai N, Gladden LB. VO2 on-kinetics in isolated canine muscle in situ during slowed convective O2 delivery. Journal of Applied Physiology 2012;112(1):9-19. PMID: 21979805
- Fitzgerald DW, Bezak K, Ocheretina O, Riviere C, Wright TC, Milne GL, Zhou XK, Du B, Subbaramaiah K, Byrt E, Goodwin ML, Rafii A, and Dannenberg AJ. The effect of HIV and HPV co-infection on cervical COX-2 expression and systemic prostaglandin E2 levels. Cancer
Prevention Research 2012;5(1):34-40. Feature story on this work in New York Times: “Aspirin May Prevent Cervical Cancer in Women With HIV”. PMID: 22135046
- Grassi B, Hogan MC, Rossiter HB, Howlett RA, Harris JE, Goodwin ML, Dobson JL, and Gladden LB. Faster O2 uptake kinetics in canine skeletal muscle after acute creatine kinase inhibition. Journal of Physiology 2011;589:221-33. PMID: 21059760
- Gladden LB, Goodwin ML, McDonald JR, Nijsten MWN. Fuel for cancer cells? Cell Cycle 2011;10(16):1772-83. PMID: 21734458
- Hernández A, Goodwin ML, Cabrera ME, Lai N, and Gladden LB. Contraction-by-contraction VO2 and alteration of O2 delivery kinetics as an independent variable in an isolated muscle in situ. Journal of Applied Physiology 2010;108(3):705-712. PMID: 20035064
- Goodwin ML. Blood glucose homeostasis during prolonged, submaximal exercise: a guide for clinicians. Journal of Diabetes Science & Technology 2010;4(3):694-705. PMID: 20513337
- Goodwin ML. Statistics and p-values. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2009;92(5):454. PMID: 19712239
- Goodwin ML, Harris JE, Hernández A, and Gladden LB. Blood lactate measurements and analysis during exercise: a guide for clinicians. Journal of Diabetes Science & Technology 2007;1(4):558-569. PMID: 19885119
- Goodwin ML and Wit LC. Biomedical Physiology. 1st Ed (2011), Rev Printing (2012). Kendall Hunt Publishing, Copyright 2011, ISBN 978-0-7575-7976-9.
- Goodwin ML and Sciubba DM. Radiation, robotics, and reconstructive options in spine tumor surgery. Chapter for upcoming Surgical Spinal Oncology (2019).
- Goodwin ML, Pennington Z, and Sciubba DM. Strategies to Minimize Surgeon Radiation Exposure. Chapter for Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics (2019).
Dr. Goodwin's research interests are centered around metabolism, particularly of intervertebral discs and of spinal tumors.
Studying the metabolism of muscle and the kinetics of both lactate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation for many years led to his interest in tumor metabolism and intervertebral disc metabolism. As a Division 1 Cross Country runner, he spent hours performing human performance testing in the lab. He then completed his PhD under LB Gladden, one of the world authorities on lactate metabolism, where his work on the controls of oxidative metabolism was nominated for best science dissertation (Journal of Applied Physiology 2012;112(1):9-19).
After his PhD, he continued studying metabolism throughout Medical School and residency, where as an orthopedic resident he designed and performed seminal experiments that demonstrated the role lactate plays in the tumor microenvironment in a novel mouse model of sarcoma, promoting robust angiogenesis (Cancer Cell 2014(26):1-12.).
Dr. Goodwin’s interest in intervertebral discs and tumors represents the “extremes” of metabolism. Tumors are often hyper-vascular, while discs are largely avascular. This contrasting metabolic behavior represents opposing ends of the spectrum of human tissue, providing a unique insight into basic principles underlying metabolism. Both Dr. Goodwin's clinical practice and his own personal interests in the metabolism of tumors drive his research.
His current focus is on substrate utilization in tumor metabolism. The ultimate goal is to discover mechanisms that may be targeted and thus impact both patients with rare diseases (such as spinal tumors) and common diseases (such as degenerative disc disease) of the spine.
Dr. Goodwin attended medical school at Cornell University (Weill Cornell Medical College) in New York, NY, where he became involved in orthopedic oncology rotations. For six months, he lived in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, where he studied cervical cancer and HIV, and also completed orthopedic oncology rotations at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Duke University. He then completed his orthopaedic surgery residency from the University of Utah Orthopaedics, in Salt Lake City, UT. During his residency, he spent time at Hinduja Hospital in Mumbai, India, completing a mini-fellowship in orthopaedic oncology and spinal oncology under the direction of Dr. Manish Agarwal. Dr. Goodwin's interest in spinal tumors led to a neurosurgery spine fellowship at Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore, MD, where he trained under the direction of Dan Sciubba, MD, an internationally-renowned spinal tumor surgeon. During his fellowship, Dr. Goodwin performed numerous complex tumor cases with Dr. Sciubba, including multiple sacrectomies, multiple en bloc spondylectomies (at cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels), as well as the treatment of complex spinal deformity and spinal infections (such as destructive spinal coccidiodomycosis).
Master's Degree (MA)
- Education, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Furman University, Greenville, SC
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
- Physiology of Exercise, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Medical Doctor (MD)
- Cornell University (Weill Cornell Medical College), New York, NY
- Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah Orthopaedics, Salt Lake City, UT
- Spine Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Honors and Awards
- 2019, Named a “Top 20 under 40” spine surgeon by North American Spine Society (NASS)
- 2019, Best Presentation Award, Annual Globus Fellows Day Presentation
- 2019, Banff, AO Spine Conference, selected “top abstract” for podium presentation
- 2011-2016, Invited medical lecturer at Cornell Medical, Physiology, beginning as a 2nd year student
- 2014, Young Investigator Award, Connective Tissue Oncology Society (CTOS)
- 2013-current, Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine (FACSM)
- 2013, Recipient of Moselle and Milton Pollack Prize in Medical Ethics, Weill Cornell
- 2013, MD with Honors in Service from Weill Cornell Medical College
- 2011, Weill Cornell Medical Student Research Day: First Prize, Oral Presentation
- 2010-2011, President, Medical School Student Body, Weill Cornell Medical College
- 2010, Weill Cornell Pediatric Research Day: First Prize, Poster Presentation
- 2010, Distinguished Dissertation Award, Nominee for Science Dissertation
- AO Spine
- North American Spine Society (NASS)
- Connective Tissue Oncology Society (CTOS)
- American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
- American Physiological Society (APS)
- American Medical Association (AMA)