Pediatric reconstructive spine surgery of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Primary and revisions of complex, pediatric spinal deformities (scoliosis, kyphosis and spondylolisthesis) and spinal reconstructive surgery. Pathology of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine (spinal tumors, fractures, and congenital disorders), congenital, neuromuscular and early-onset scoliosis. Nonsurgical (spine casting) and surgical treatment of the growing spine (vertebral body stapling, vertebral body tethering, Shilla technique, MAGEC, growth rods, and vertebral body resection). ApiFix Surgery for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.