Robert Brophy

Robert Brophy, MD

Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery

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(314) 514-3500

Dr. Brophy is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon and an Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine. After earning his medical degree from the Washington University School of Medicine in 2001, he completed a residency in orthopedic surgery and a fellowship in sports medicine and shoulder surgery at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, NY. 

His clinical interests include ACL reconstruction, PCL reconstruction, meniscus repairs and transplantation, and cartilage repair surgery such as OAT and osteochondral allograft as well as shoulder stabilization, labral repair and rotator cuff repair. He is the team physician for the St. Louis Surge and the Francis Howell football team, and serves on the Musculoskeletal Research Committee of the National Football League (NFL) and the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. A former collegiate and professional soccer player, he has a special interest in the treatment and prevention of injuries in soccer athletes.

Common Diagnoses Treated

  • AC joint separation
  • ACL tear
  • Adhesive capsulitis/frozen shoulder
  • Articular cartilage injury
  • Chondral defect
  • Clavicle fracture
  • Knee dislocation
  • Meniscus tear
  • Multi-ligament knee injury
  • OCD
  • Patella dislocation
  • PCL tear
  • Rotator cuff tear, shoulder instability
  • Shoulder dislocation
  • Shoulder labral tear
  • SLAP tear

Common Procedures

  • AC joint reconstruction
  • ACL reconstruction
  • High tibial osteotomy
  • Meniscal repair
  • Meniscal transplantation
  • Microfracture
  • MPFL reconstruction
  • OATS/mosaicplasty
  • Osteochondral allograft
  • Partial meniscectomy
  • Patella stabilization
  • PCL reconstruction
  • Rotator cuff repair
  • Shoulder and knee arthroscopy
  • Shoulder labral repair
  • Shoulder stabilization
  • SLAP repair
  • Tibial tubercle osteotomy

Clinical Office Locations

  • Center for Advanced Medicine (CAM)

    Barnes Jewish Hospital

    4921 Parkview Place

    St Louis, MO 63110

  • Washington University Orthopedics / Chesterfield

    14532 S. Outer Forty Drive

    Chesterfield, MO 63017

Hospital Affiliations

  • Washington University Orthopedics & Barnes-Jewish Hospital Outpatient Orthopedic Center
  • Barnes-Jewish Hospital
  • Barnes-Jewish West County Hospital

Academic Office Mailing Address

  • Washington University School of Medicine

    Campus Box 8233

    660 Euclid Avenue

    Saint Louis, MO 63110

Shoulder (Rotator Cuff Tears, Instability, Labral tears, etc.)

  • Brophy RH, Dunn WR, Kuhn JE, MOON Shoulder Group. Shoulder activity level is not associated with the severity of symptomatic, atraumatic rotator cuff tears in patients electing nonoperative treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:1150-4.
  • Brophy RH. Results of shoulder stabilization surgery in athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2013;32:825-32.
  • Aleem AW, Brophy RH. Outcomes of rotator cuff surgery: What does the evidence tell us? Clin Sports Med. 2012;31:665-74.
  • Brophy RH, Gill CS, Lyman S, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in National Football League athletes.  Am J Sports Med 2011; 39:704-9.
  • Brophy RH, Marx RG. The treatment of traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: Nonoperative and surgical treatment. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:298-304.
  • Wall LB, Keener JD, Brophy RH.  Clinical outcomes of double-row versus single-row rotator cuff repairs.  Arthroscopy. 2009; 25:1312-8
  • Wall LB, Keener JD, Brophy RH.  Double-row vs. single-row rotator cuff repair: A review of the biomechanical evidence. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009; 18:933-41.
  • Keener JD, Brophy RH.  Superior labral tears of the shoulder: Pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment.  J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17:627-37.
  • Brophy RH, Marx RG.  Osteoarthritis following shoulder instability.  Clin Sports Med.  2005; 24:47-56. 

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears/Reconstruction

  • Brophy RH, Tycksen ED, Sandell LJ, Rai MF. Changes in transcriptome wide gene expression of anterior cruciate ligament tears based on time from injury. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44:2064-75. 
  • Brophy RH, Huston LJ, Wright RW, Nwosu SK, Kaeding CC, Parker RD, Andrish JT, Marx RG, McCarty EC, Amendola A, Wolf BR, Dunn WR, Wolcott ML, Spindler KP. Outcomes of ACL reconstruction in patients with Diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:969-973.
  • Brophy RH, Wright RW, Huston LJ, Nwosu SK, MOON Group, Spindler KP.  Factors associated with infection following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97:450-4.
  • Brophy RH, Haas AK, Huston LJ, Nwosu SK, MARS Group, Wright RW. The association of meniscal status, lower extremity alignment, and body mass index with chondrosis at the time of revision ACL reconstruction.  Am J Sports Med. 2015; 43:1616-22.
  • Skelley NW, Castile RM, York TE, Gruev V, Lake SP, Brophy RH.  Differences in the microstructural properties of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament.  Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:928-936. 
  • Brophy RH, Stepan J, Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR.  Defending puts the anterior cruciate ligament at risk during soccer: A gender based analysis. Sports Health. 2015;7:244-249. 
  • Matava MJ, Howard DR, Polakof L, Brophy RH.  Public perception regarding anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:e85.
  • Brophy RH, Schmitz L, Wright RW, Dunn WR, Parker RD, Andrish JT, McCarty EC, Spindler KP.  Return to play and future ACL injury risk following ACL reconstruction in soccer athletes from the MOON Group.  Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:2517-22.
  • Brophy RH, Wright RW, David TS, McCormack RG, Sekiya JK, Svoboda SJ, Huston LJ, Haas AK, Steger-May K, MARS Group.  Association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions at revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  Am J Sports Med. 2012; 40:808-14.
  • Mall NA, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Brophy RH.  Relation between anterior cruciate ligament graft obliquity and knee laxity in elite athletes at the National Football League Combine.  Arthroscopy 2012; 28:1104-13.
  • Warner SJ, Smith MV, Wright RW, Matava MJ, Brophy RH.  Sport-specific outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  Arthroscopy 2011; 27:1129-34.
  • Brophy RH, Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR.  Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2010;18:2-11.
  • Brophy RH, Zeltser D, Wright RW, Flanigan D.  Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and concomitant articular cartilage injury: Incidence and treatment.  Arthroscopy. 2010;26:112-20.
  • Brophy RH, Gill CS, Lyman S, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscectomy on length of career in National Football League athletes: A case control study. Am J Sports Med. 2009; 37:2102-7.
  • Brophy RH, Pearle AD. Single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A comparison of conventional, central and horizontal single-bundle virtual graft positions. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1317-23.
  • Brophy RH, Voos JE, Shannon FJ, Granchi CC, Wickiewicz TL, Warren RF, Pearle AD. Changes in the length of virtual anterior cruciate ligament fibers during stability testing: A comparison of conventional single-bundle reconstruction and native anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:2196-203.

Meniscus Tears/Surgery

  • Brophy RH, Sandell LJ, Rai MF. Traumatic and degenerative meniscus tears have different gene expression signatures. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:114-120.
  • Brophy RH, Sandell LJ, Cheverud JM, Rai MF. Gene expression in human meniscal tears has limited association with early degenerative changes in knee articular cartilage. Connect Tissue Res. 2017;58:295-304.
  • Brophy RH, Geffen AM, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Smith MV. Understanding of meniscus injury and expectations of meniscus surgery in orthopaedic patients. Arthroscopy. 2015;31:2295-2300.
  • Lamplot JD, Brophy RH. The role for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in knees with degenerative changes: A systematic review. Bone Joint J. 2016;98-B:934-938.
  • Katz JN, Brophy RH, Chaisson CE, de Chaves L, Cole BJ, Dahm DL, Donnell-Fink LA, Guermazi A, Haas AK, Jones MH, Levy BA, Mandl LA, Martin SD, Marx RG, Miniaci A, Matava MJ, Palmisano J, Reinke EK, Richardson BE, Rome BN, Safran-Norton CE, Skoniecki DJ, Solomon DH, Smith MV, Spindler KP, Stuart MJ, Wright J, Wright RW, Losina E. Surgery versus physical therapy for a meniscal tear and osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1675-84.
  • Brophy RH, Matava MJ.  Surgical options for meniscal replacement.  J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2012; 20:265-72.
  • Paxton ES, Stock MV, Brophy RH.  Meniscal repair versus partial meniscectomy: A systematic review comparing re-operation rates and clinical outcomes.  Arthroscopy. 2011; 27:1275-88.
  • Brophy RH, Martinez M, Borelli J Jr, Silva MJ. Effect of combined traumatic impact and radial transection of medial meniscus on knee cartilage in a rabbit in vivo model.  Arthroscopy. 2012;28:1490-6.
  • Brophy RH, Gill CS, Lyman S, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscectomy on length of career in National Football League athletes: A case control study. Am J Sports Med. 2009; 37:2102-7.

Articular Cartilage Injury/Surgery

  • Brophy RH, Wojahn RD, Lamplot JD. Cartilage restoration techniques for the patellofemoral joint. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2017;25:321-329.
  • Flanigan DC, Carey JL, Brophy RH, Graham WC, DiBartola AC, Hamilton D, Nagaraja HN, Lattermann C. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of arthroscopic measurements of articular cartilage defects in the knee. J Bone Joint Surg. 2017;99:979-988.
  • Smith MV, Nepple JJ, Wright RW, Matava MJ, Brophy RH. Knee osteoarthritis is associated with previous meniscus and ACL surgery among elite American college football athletes. SportsHealth. 2017;9:247-251.
  • Miller DJ, Smith MV, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Brophy RH. Microfracture and osteochondral autograft transplantation are cost-effective treatments for articular cartilage lesions of the distal femur. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:2175-81.
  • Miller DJ, Brophy RH. Microfracture and ability to return to sports after cartilage surgery. Oper Tech Orthop. 2014;24:240-246.
  • Blackman AJ, Smith MV, Flanigan DC, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Brophy RH. Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcomes after cartilage repair surgery in the knee: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Am J Sports Med. 2013; 41:1426-34.
  • Nepple JJ, Wright RW, Matava MJ, Brophy RH.  Full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: Prevalence, location, and association with previous surgery.  Arthroscopy. 2012;28:798-806. 
  • Flanigan DC, Harris JD, Trinh TQ, Siston RA, Brophy RH. Prevalence of chondral defects in athletes’ knees: A systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1795-801. 
  • Brophy RH, Zeltser D, Wright RW, Flanigan D.  Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and concomitant articular cartilage injury: Incidence and treatment.  Arthroscopy. 2010;26:112-20.
  • Brophy RH, Rodeo SA, Barnes RP, Powell JW, Warren RF.  Knee articular cartilage injuries in the National Football League: Epidemiology and treatment approach by team physicians. J Knee Surg. 2009;22:331-8.

Soccer

  • Brophy RH, Stepan J, Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR.  Defending puts the anterior cruciate ligament at risk during soccer: A gender based analysis. Sports Health. 2015;7:244-249. 
  • Brophy RH, Schmitz L, Wright RW, Dunn WR, Parker RD, Andrish JT, McCary EC, Spindler KP.  Return to play and future ACL injury risk following ACL reconstruction in soccer athletes from the MOON Group.  Am J Sports Med. 2012;40;2517-22.
  • Brophy RH, Backus SI, Kraszewski AP, Steele BC, Ma Y, Osei D, Williams RJ.  Gender differences during the soccer kick in lower extremity alignment and muscle activation.  J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010; 92:2050-8.
  • Brophy R, Silvers HJ, Gonzales T, Mandelbaum BR.  Gender influences: The role of leg dominance in ACL injury among soccer players.  Br J Sports Med 2010; 44:694-7.
  • Brophy RH, Chiaia T, Maschi R, Dodson CC, Oh LS, Lyman S, Allen AA, Williams RJ.  The core and hip in soccer athletes compared by gender.  Int J Sports Med 2009;30:663-7.
  • Brophy RH, Backus SI, Pansy BS, Lyman S, Williams RJ.  Lower extremity muscle activation and alignment during the soccer instep and side-foot kicks.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007; 37:260-8.

Football

  • Smith MV, Nepple JJ, Wright RW, Matava MJ, Brophy RH. Knee osteoarthritis is associated with previous meniscus and ACL surgery among elite American college football athletes. SportsHealth. 2017;9:247-251. 
  • Nepple JJ, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Brophy RH. Full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: prevalence, location, and association with previous surgery. Arthroscopy. 2012;28:798-806.
  • Mall NA, Matava MJ, Wright RW, Brophy RH. Relation between anterior cruciate ligament graft obliquity and knee laxity in elite athletes at the National Football League Combine. Arthroscopy. 2012;28:1104-13.
  • Brophy RH, Gill CS, Lyman S, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in national football league athletes. Am J Sports Med 2011;39:704-9. 
  • Brophy RH, Wright RW, Powell JW, Matava MJ.  Injuries to kickers in American football:  the National Football League experience.  Am J Sports Med 2010; 38:1166-73.
  • Brophy RH, Gill CS, Lyman S, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Effect of ACL reconstruction and meniscectomy on length of career in National Football League athletes:  a case control study.  Am J Sports Med 2009;37:2102-7.
  • Brophy RH, Rodeo SA, Barnes RP, Powell JW, Warren RF.  Knee articular cartilage injuries in the National Football League:  epidemiology and treatment approach by team physicians.  J Knee Surg 2009;22:331-8.
  • Brophy RH, Lyman S, Chehab EL, Barnes RP, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.  Am J Sports Med 2009;37:768-75.
  • Brophy RH, Chehab EL, Barnes RP, Lyman S, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Predictive value of orthopedic evaluation and injury history at NFL combine.  Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40:1368-72.
  • Brophy RH, Barnes R, Rodeo SA, Warren RF.  Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders at the NFL Combine - Trends from 1987-2000.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39:22-7.

 

Clinical Interests

Sports medicine and shoulder and knee injuries, with an emphasis on arthroscopic surgery. Shoulder instability and dislocations, labral tears, SLAP tears, rotator cuff tears, AC joint injuries and clavicle fractures. Shoulder stabilization and labral repair, rotator cuff repair. Knee ligament injuries including ACL, PCL tears and knee dislocations/multi-ligament knee injuries. Knee ligament reconstruction including ACL reconstruction, revision ACL reconstruction and PCL reconstruction. Meniscus tears and treatment, including meniscectomy, meniscal repairs, and meniscus allograft transplants. Knee cartilage injury and surgery, including microfracture, OATS, osteochondral allografts and ORIF OCD. Knee realignment including high tibial osteotomy. Treatment of patellofemoral instability, including MPFL reconstruction and tibial tubercle osteotomy.

Background

Dr. Brophy is a Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine committed to patient care and research. His clinical practice focuses on shoulder and knee injuries in patients from all sports and walks of life. As a former collegiate and professional athlete, Dr. Brophy understands what it takes to come back from injury.

Dr. Brophy was named to the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons as a member at large in 2016. He pursues research as a means of improving patient care and outcomes, having authored or co-authored over 190 peer reviewed articles to date, and has received a number of research related distinctions. He is a member of the Musculoskeletal Committee for the National Football League (NFL) Injury and Safety Panel and a team physician for the St. Louis Surge women’s basketball team and the Francis Howell high school football team, having also worked with the former St. Louis Rams (NFL), the St. Louis Blues (NHL), the St. Louis Athletica (WPS), and the University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL).

Dr. Brophy has undergraduate degrees in Economics and Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, where he played on the men’s soccer team, earning All Conference Honors during his senior season. While completing a master’s degree in Industrial Engineering at Stanford University, he played for two national championship teams in the United Soccer League (1992 and 1996). He subsequently enrolled in medical school at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis as a recipient of a Washington University School of Medicine Distinguished Alumni Scholarship. He received numerous academic awards during medical school, including Alpha Omega Alpha national medical honor society recognition, before entering orthopedic surgery residency at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, NY. He stayed at the Hospital for Special Surgery for a fellowship in sports medicine and shoulder surgery, learning about team coverage as an assistant with the New York Giants (NFL) and New York Red Bulls (MLS).

After completing his fellowship, he returned to the Washington University School of Medicine to join the division of sports medicine in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery with a clinical focus on shoulder and knee injuries. In the shoulder, he has a particular interest in the treatment of shoulder dislocations and instability, labral tears and rotator cuff tears. In the knee, he specializes in meniscus, articular cartilage and ligament injuries, including the ACL and PCL.

Dr. Brophy has been named to the St. Louis Best Doctors since 2009 and has been selected for a number of traveling fellowships throughout his career. In 2008, he was a traveling fellow with the International Cartilage Research Society, learning from renowned articular cartilage surgeons in various centers throughout Europe. The next year, he was an American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS)/American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) North American Traveling Fellow, hosted by leading academic orthopedic surgery centers in the United States and Canada. He was selected as an American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)-European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA) Traveling Fellow in 2012 to visit expert sports medicine, arthroscopy, knee and shoulder surgeons in Spain, Holland, Luxembourg, Germany, France, Italy and Switzerland. In the spring of 2015, he was selected as an AOA American-British-Canadian (ABC) Traveling Fellow, touring prominent orthopedic surgery centers in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

In 2010, he earned an Orthopaedic Research Society-Orthopedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF) Travel Award in Research Translation and a Young Investigator Travel Award to the AOSSM/NIH Post-Joint Injury Osteoarthritis Conference. He was awarded an OREF Young Investigator Research Grant to study the metabolic activity of the meniscus as a potential marker for and predictor of osteoarthritis in 2011, and the 2013 AOSSM/Sanofi Biosurgery Osteoarthritis Grant for his study, “Molecular Profiling of Meniscus and Articular Cartilage in Knees With and Without Osteoarthritis to Identify Candidate Genes for Therapeutic Intervention”. In 2011, he was awarded the AOSSM NCAA Research Award for a study looking at the effect of meniscal and ACL surgery on knee articular cartilage in football athletes. In 2012, he was recognized with the Lee T. Ford Award for academic achievement from the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in the Washington University School of Medicine. The NFL Physicians Society awarded him the Arthur C. Rettig Award, for academic excellence in research to advance the health and safety of NFL players, in 2015. The same year he was awarded the AOSSM Cabaud Award for research studying the metabolic activity of meniscus and cartilage in knees. He received an Excellence in Education award from the Washington University Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in 2016. He has been a co-author on various studies recognized with the Association of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons’ Neer Award, the AOSSM O’Donoghue Award and the NFL Physicians Society Arthur C. Rettig Award. In conjunction with his sports medicine partners, he participates in multi-center research efforts including the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) ACL study, MOON Shoulder Group, Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS), and Meniscal Tear with Osteoarthritis Research (MeTeOR) study, which have won a number of research awards for their collective work.

Dr. Brophy has been a member of the editorial board of the American Journal of Sports Medicine and serves as a peer reviewer for a number of orthopedic surgery journals, including The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, the Bone and Joint Journal, and the Journal of Orthopaedic Research. He currently serves, or has served, on committees for several professional organizations, including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, Association of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Arthroscopy Association of North America, American Orthopaedic Association, International Cartilage Research Society, Orthopaedic Research Society, Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, and the Magellan Society.

Honors and Awards:

  • 2009-present - Best Doctors (St. Louis, MO)
  • 2017 - AOSSM O'Donoghue Award (co-author)
  • 2017 - NFL Physicians Society Arthur C. Rettig Award (co-author)
  • 2016 - Excellence in Education
  • 2015 - AOSSM Cabaud Award
  • 2015 - NFL Physicians Society Arthur C. Rettig Award for Academic Excellence
  • 2015 - AOA ABC Traveling Fellowship
  • 2014 - AOSSM O'Donoghue Award (co-author)
  • 2013 - ASES Neer Award (co-author)
  • 2012 - Lee T. Ford Award for Academic Achievement
  • 2012 - AOSSM-ESSKA Traveling Fellowship
  • 2011 - AOSSM NCAA Research Award
  • 2011 - ASES Neer Award (co-author)
  • 2010 - Young Investigator Travel Award AOSSM/NIH Osteoarthritis Conf.
  • 2010 - ORS-OREF Travel Award in Orthopaedic Research Translation
  • 2009 - AAOS/AOA North American Traveling Fellowship
  • 2008 - International Cartilage Research Society Traveling Fellowship
  • 2007 - U.S. Bone & Joint Decade Young Investigator
  • 2007 - Eastern Orthopedic Association Ranawat Resident/Fellow Research Award
  • 2006 - Eastern Orthopedic Association Resident/Fellow Research Travel Award
  • 2006 - AAOS/OREF/ORS Clinician Scientist Development Program
  • 2005 - AOA-Zimmer Resident Leadership Forum
  • 2004 - Eastern Orthopedic Association Resident/Fellow Research Award
  • 2001 - Missouri State Medical Association Award
  • 2000 - AOA Honor Society, Dr. Richard S. Brookings Medical School Prize, Medical Center Alumni Scholarship Fund Prize, Southern Medical Association Student Scholarship
  • 1997-2001 - Washington University School of Medicine Distinguished Alumni Scholarship
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Make an Appointment

Dr. Brophy’s Office Locations

Center for Advanced Medicine (CAM)

Barnes Jewish Hospital

4921 Parkview Place

St Louis, MO 63110

Washington University Orthopedics – Chesterfield

14532 S. Outer Forty Drive

Chesterfield, MO 63017

Disclaimer

The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has no control over third-party websites and does not review such websites. The university disclaims any responsibility for the content of third-party websites and the use of any information on these sites.